Written Document – 18-98 Plus http://18-98plus.com/ Sun, 09 Jan 2022 05:08:36 +0000 en-US hourly 1 https://wordpress.org/?v=5.8 https://18-98plus.com/wp-content/uploads/2021/07/icon-3-150x150.png Written Document – 18-98 Plus http://18-98plus.com/ 32 32 Justice and crumbs of justice | The Guardian Nigeria News https://18-98plus.com/justice-and-crumbs-of-justice-the-guardian-nigeria-news/ Sun, 09 Jan 2022 03:10:00 +0000 https://18-98plus.com/justice-and-crumbs-of-justice-the-guardian-nigeria-news/ What is the basis of a just society? Where will humans find the final arbiter? This is because there will always be differences between men and especially between strong men and weak men, rich men and poor men. And women too, women and women. When in 1913 the white men drove out the black men […]]]>

What is the basis of a just society? Where will humans find the final arbiter? This is because there will always be differences between men and especially between strong men and weak men, rich men and poor men. And women too, women and women.

When in 1913 the white men drove out the black men from the land of their fathers, from the land they considered theirs, the land where they had buried their dead, where the arbiter was to cry scandal and injustice? Everywhere was calm as these black men entered the winter of bitterness and hunger. Those who died of hunger perished on the roads. Those who were strong among them have made a fresh start. They found men weaker than themselves supplanted them in turn, seizing their land. And so the story continues.

Imagine that there was no one to record what happened? What happened would remain silent there as what happened. But there were oral historians, people with fantastically expansive memories, able to remember the details of what happened a week ago, a year ago, when something happened. produced and that another was allowed to occur alongside, in order to work as the only one who would remind the other of the mnemonic. This is why nothing is isolated.

First there are those who remember, who play from time to time when the hands were light and the harvest was done. It is because such men have come out, fine and long voices, memories fresh as a freshly fallen dew. They reminded ordinary people where the rain started to beat us. It was a tale of clues and suggestions, a tale with something to take home and ponder. By meditating on the story, the question arises: what should be done? These men were young and ready to engage in society in the future.

But we are talking about those who record. Those who remind others not only of what happened. We want to know why this happened in case it should never happen again. They tell and those who listened heard the tales of their ancestors.

The learned brothers followed, those whom the missionaries trained to turn their brothers against themselves. They are the ones who started to write the history of what happened in the dark past.

Sometimes they ask those who wrote from memory to remind them of a few details here and there, reminding them of those juicy details that make the details so enjoyable to read. Thus, the files were compiled and the writings were drawn up. The raw material is what is stored here. Story after story, that’s what is written here.

There are those who would accept both oral and written, and from both, compose powerful documents that cannot be contradicted.

Which brings us to lawyers and their own stories. Tebbeka Ngcukaitobi is the author of The Land is Ours: South Africa’s First Black Lawyers and the Birth of Constitutionalism.

It is important to clarify that by the time the narrative got to the point where lawyers have to add their penny value, the narrative had reached the stage of an argument. Remember how we progressed? First there were our storytellers, the ones who made sure that we remembered our story. Then there were those who wrote. Then there were those who took the oral and the written and composed a powerful document that could not be contradicted. And then the lawyers could make their case.

Like a lawyer’s brief, it is well presented. It is divided into three parts: Part 1 is titled Earth “How the Earth Was Lost”. This, for me, is not satisfactory as an explanation of how the earth was lost. It looks like the mythification of the lost land. What happened in 1913 when black people were driven from their land? This is really a bad basis for claiming equality with white men and defending the human rights of black intellectuals.

From there, we are on a whole different ground. These South African lawyers who are writing the story of South Africa’s Lost Lands are looking to Pan-Africanists in North America and the Caribbean to improve their argument. It does not work. They are two different stories. The encounters are different. Slavery is the occasion for meetings in North Africa and the Caribbean. Whatever case has been done collapses before it is done.

Ownership of African land cannot be contested and it is not contested at all. No one has disputed the process by which Africans lost the land. The complicated question of how to get it was going to interest us all.

Despite claiming ownership of the land, the lawyers have failed to defend themselves with the South African state constitution discussion. They weren’t united. They were seen as members of different tribes, of different ethnicities. All they got from the evolution of constitutionalism are “crumbs of justice”.

The book is the documentation of its failure. Nothing could be more futile.

There is still no solution to the land question except that it belongs to the natives. Despite this claim, no case has been made for the owners of the land, on the basis of which they claim their state citizenship. It was a blatant failure of blacks to defend their cause.

We started by knowing where justice will be found for black people. We only dealt with the land issue. Assuming we included the issue of slavery and the issue of compensation, the issue would become more complicated. For example, Africans were slave traders. Should they also be compensated in the manner and manner in which the owners of white slaves were compensated for the loss of their property?

This question is likely to destroy the arguments in favor of equality in the calculation of compensation when it comes to compensation. Within the state, the problem will continue to be phoned.

In the meantime, the land issue will be a priority since it seems easier to call. But it does not lend itself to little inclusiveness. For too long, African issues have dealt with too little and too late. Crumbs of justice is not at all justice !!!


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Treaties | Manila weather https://18-98plus.com/treaties-manila-weather/ Fri, 07 Jan 2022 10:58:13 +0000 https://18-98plus.com/treaties-manila-weather/ WASHINGTON Irving, the famous American author, wrote “The Legend of Sleepy Hollow”, which spoke about the misadventures of the gangly Ichabod Crane. Hardly anyone remembers that in 1809 Irving wrote about treaties. He said: “At best, treaties are respected as long as an interest demands their fulfillment. Therefore, they virtually bind only the weaker party; […]]]>

WASHINGTON Irving, the famous American author, wrote “The Legend of Sleepy Hollow”, which spoke about the misadventures of the gangly Ichabod Crane. Hardly anyone remembers that in 1809 Irving wrote about treaties. He said: “At best, treaties are respected as long as an interest demands their fulfillment. Therefore, they virtually bind only the weaker party; or, frankly, they don’t bind at all.

Irving’s words have come true 89 years later. Because their interests demanded it, the United States went to war with the Spanish Empire, the weaker party that admitted it “had no means of defense.” Taking advantage of Spain’s weakness and the wars of independence in its last three colonies, America demanded that Spain cede Cuba, Puerto Rico, the Philippines, including the Marianas. The Spanish-American War broke out in the Caribbean, crossed the Pacific Ocean to Manila Bay. After a series of meetings in Paris, Spain accepted $ 20 million in return for the said colonies and signed the Treaty of Paris with the United States on December 10, 1898. In truth, as Irving said, the treaty was more restrictive for the weaker party. .

According to the 1969 Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties (VCLT), of which the Philippines is a signatory, “a treaty is an international agreement between states in written form and governed by international law, whether incorporated into a treaty. single instrument or in two or more related instruments, and whatever its particular designation. This means that agreements made through an exchange of gifts, blood contracts, drums or smoke signals, while valid between parties with unusual arrangements, will not be governed by the provisions of the VCLT because they are not in written form.

A treaty comes to life when a problem that must be resolved by agreement arises between two or more states. Because states involved in disputes must protect their national interests through thick and thin, intense negotiations take place with frantic exchanges of memoranda before a treaty is finally signed.

Representatives with “full powers” may submit a memorandum or memorandum that describes the issues that need to be resolved through negotiations and therefore through a treaty. A “proposal” is made which contains suggestions on how to resolve the issues that should be addressed by the treaty. In the context of the VCLT, “full powers” mean a document of a State designating a person or persons to represent it to negotiate, adopt or authenticate the text of a treaty, to express consent to be bound by a treaty. , or to do any other act with respect to a treaty.

By virtue of executive decree 459, art. 1997, “full powers” ​​are conferred by the President who can delegate this function to the Secretary of Foreign Affairs.

The person signing the treaty is considered to have “full powers” ​​to represent his State for the purpose of adopting the treaty when he produces the required document enabling him to represent his State in the process of concluding the treaty and, when the signature of it. According to EO 459, the following persons have “full powers” ​​by virtue of their functions: a) Secretary of Foreign Affairs; (b) heads of Philippine diplomatic missions, for the purpose of adopting the text of an agreement between the Philippines and the state to which they are accredited; (c) representatives accredited by the Philippines to an international conference or to an international organization or one of its organs, for the purpose of adopting the text of a treaty in that conference, organization or organ.

The parties may, if necessary, issue a communiqué which is defined as a cleverly written summary of the main points of a diplomatic dialogue covering, among other things, the state of progress of negotiations on the treaty.

The word “treaty” in the context of the VCLT is a generic description of a legal instrument by which states create binding obligations among themselves, but it can be known by several names: 1) convention; 2) protocol; 3) composition; 4) pact; 5) exchange of notes; and (6) framework agreements.

A convention is an agreement signed by several states concerning matters of concern to all. A protocol is also an agreement between states, but less formal. However, the lack of formality makes it nothing less than a binding agreement. Protocols generally deal with the implementation of previously signed treaties, such as the first optional protocol to the International Convention on Civil and Political Rights, which deals with the implementation of the provisions of the Convention on Civil and Political Rights and constitutes therefore an amendment to the treaty. .

A concordat is a treaty between a state and the Pope, representing Vatican City or the Holy See. A concordat deals with ecclesiastical questions. Pacts are treaties that usually deal with defense issues like the Warsaw Pact.

(To be continued on January 15, 2022)


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PTAB / USPTO Update – January 2022 https://18-98plus.com/ptab-uspto-update-january-2022/ Wed, 05 Jan 2022 07:33:22 +0000 https://18-98plus.com/ptab-uspto-update-january-2022/ USPTO leadership Drew Hirshfeld still exercises the functions and duties of director. Kathi Vidal, the Biden administration’s candidate to be the next director, testified at the Senate Judiciary Committee hearing regarding her appointment on December 1. She then submitted written responses to written questions from senators. USPTO News On December 16, the USPTO announced a […]]]>

USPTO leadership

  • Drew Hirshfeld still exercises the functions and duties of director. Kathi Vidal, the Biden administration’s candidate to be the next director, testified at the Senate Judiciary Committee hearing regarding her appointment on December 1. She then submitted written responses to written questions from senators.

USPTO News

  • On December 16, the USPTO announced a new membership to its public advisory committees on patents and trademarks (PPAC and TPAC). New PPAC members are Charles Duan (Cornell Fellow), Suzanne Harrison (Percipience LLC) and Heidi S. Nebel (McKee, Voorhees & Sease, PLC). New TPAC members are Adraea Brown (Harley-Davidson), Rodrick J. Enns (Enns & Archer LLP) and Dana Brown Northcott (Amazon.com).

Notices, directives and requests

Final rules

  • There are no new final rules.

Provisional rules

  • There are no interim rules.

Proposed rules

  • Electronic patent grant, 86 Fed. Reg. 71209 (Dec 15, 2021) [Written comments period closes February 14, 2022] (offering to grant patents electronically through USPTO Patent Document Viewers (PAIR) rather than on paper).
  • Date of receipt of electronic submissions of patent correspondence, 86 Fed. Reg. 69195 (Dec 7, 2021) [Written comments period closes February 7, 2022] (proposing to amend the Patent Practice Rules to provide that the date of receipt of correspondence submitted through EFS is the date in Eastern United States time that the USPTO received the correspondence).

PTAB decisions

  • New previous PTAB decisions
  • There are no new informative decisions from the PTAB.
  • New informative decisions of the PTAB
    • There are no new informative decisions from the PTAB.

New POP review requests

  • There are no new POP review requests.


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5 business ideas for those who love to travel – Middle East & Gulf News https://18-98plus.com/5-business-ideas-for-those-who-love-to-travel-middle-east-gulf-news/ Mon, 03 Jan 2022 07:00:45 +0000 https://18-98plus.com/5-business-ideas-for-those-who-love-to-travel-middle-east-gulf-news/ By: Daniel Martin Daniel Martin loves to build winning content teams. Over the past few years, he has built successful teams that have produced engaging content enjoyed by millions of users. Coronavirus restrictions are finally lifted. The explorer in us can start planning again for his desire to travel. But the financial pressure of the […]]]>

By: Daniel Martin

Daniel Martin loves to build winning content teams. Over the past few years, he has built successful teams that have produced engaging content enjoyed by millions of users.

Coronavirus restrictions are finally lifted. The explorer in us can start planning again for his desire to travel. But the financial pressure of the pandemic has been heavy on all of our pockets.

Travel enthusiasts will either have to limit their trips or find a way to make money while traveling. The second option is what we are going to talk about in this article.

1- Take travel blogs or write

A blogger is someone who writes regularly on different topics on the Internet. As a travel blogger, you can write about the different tourist destinations you visit. You can review food, hotels, and famous places, and post in-depth guest posts about them.

The investment is zero but it takes time to boost traffic to your blog. Blogging can be a great business idea for people who have a flair for writing creative articles. Businesses are willing to pay thousands of dollars for good content that draws an audience to their business.

To broaden your audience, you can browse beautiful places that are less known to people. For example, talk about a wonderful Caribbean country like Grenada. It’s a less well-known place so people would be more likely to be interested.

You can explain how people can get to Granada or how to get a Grenada passport. Here you can give your opinion on restaurants or give details on acquiring Grenadian nationality. Even a simple article on Grenada travel restrictions may interest your audience in your content.

Blogging can earn you a lot of money from your travel experiences.

2- Open a travel agency or a travel club

A travel agency is a good business idea for people who love to travel. These people have a lot of knowledge about sightseeing in exotic places or the best hotels to stay in the world. They can use it to provide the best deals to people. Investment could be a factor here. Travel agents must also be certified.

However, the Internet has given birth to remote travel agents. You can help people plan their vacations from the comfort of your own home. Give them different options like business trips, family vacations, and trips with your friends. You can capitalize on your rich travel experiences to guide people on their travels.

A travel club is different from a travel agency. A travel club offers membership to people based on similar interests. For example, an adventure club will offer travelers packages of places with the best adventure sports. It consists of a group of travelers who are passionate about the same thing and want to experience it together.

Both are specially designed for travel enthusiasts who can leverage their knowledge to start a business and travel at the same time.

Source: unsplash

3- Become a social media influencer

If you have a large number of followers on your social media accounts, you can leverage it to promote products and brands. Sponsored tweets and posts can earn you a steady income. Influencer marketing is on the rise. Brands are willing to shell out a lot of money to promote their products online.

Here are a few ways to use your influencer skills for a business:

Start talking about your travel experiences on a Spotify podcast. People love to hear good stories. Spotify podcasts pay well after attracting a generous following.

Start an Instagram channel that talks about the history, culture or art of the different places you visit. If it draws a crowd, brands will rush to collaborate with you.

Make paid collaborations with other travelers or influencers.

Give your opinion on restaurants or hotels to promote them on the Internet. You can get paid for these promotions. It is a part of affiliate marketing which is getting very famous these days.

You can even launch your product line when you gain a regular following that is loyal to you.

You can document your travel experiences and review goods and services during the trip. It can save you money from reputable brands looking for organic ways to promote themselves.

You can create any type of content on the Internet. Audio-video content has more audiences these days than written blogs. You can document your travel diaries as a video and post them on YouTube. People get paid for the number of views.

Source: unsplash

4- Use your photography skills to earn a lot of money

Some of the best photographs in the world have been taken by travel enthusiasts. Buy a professional camera to capture your trip. You will also need a bit of skill to learn how to take those awesome photos that are published in famous magazines or sold as works of art.

As a photographer, you can travel the world while earning money. After 2020, the traditional values ​​of work have changed. You don’t need office space or work staff to start your business. A working network and a laptop are the only mandatory things needed now.

This profile is ideal for people who have an eye for detail and are creative. They can help transform the face of an entire place using their camera lens.

I don’t think I took a vacation without looking at the photos of where I’m headed. Have you got?

5- Become a speaker

A speaker is someone who has a flair for storytelling. He engages audiences so well that he can attract large crowds to come and listen to him. If you are such a person, try your hand in this business. A speaker can inspire people to follow their dreams.

Public speakers travel the world to spread their message. They tell stories and guide people on certain topics. For example, you can talk about your travel experiences or a struggle you have encountered. These speakers offer something that people can learn from.

Public speakers don’t just speak in public, they document their ideas and stories in blogs, books, and articles. They can even hire a team to streamline their day-to-day operations. For someone who loves to travel, this seems like a generous business to get into.

To take with

Traveling and running a business at the same time can be a difficult feat. But you can handle it if you are passionate about travel. You can be your own boss and enjoy your dream destinations while making money.

Resume your long awaited expeditions. The business ideas mentioned in this article require very small investments. Give it a try and see for yourself how much this experience can change your life.


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Holiday Digest: a new year with a royal https://18-98plus.com/holiday-digest-a-new-year-with-a-royal/ Thu, 30 Dec 2021 22:56:17 +0000 https://18-98plus.com/holiday-digest-a-new-year-with-a-royal/ By Miranda McPhee “I need your New Years story no later than December 30,” my editor said for the umpteenth time. “Then we’ll talk about renewing your contract. I grimaced on the phone. It was December 20 and I arrived empty. As a New York transplant with decades of cold and snow to proclaim winter, […]]]>

By Miranda McPhee

“I need your New Years story no later than December 30,” my editor said for the umpteenth time. “Then we’ll talk about renewing your contract. I grimaced on the phone. It was December 20 and I arrived empty. As a New York transplant with decades of cold and snow to proclaim winter, I had a lot to learn about celebrating Christmas in sunny California, let alone write about it.

“You just have to hide and carry on,” she said.

I needed to get away from my busy housekeeping so I threw caution and money in the wind and booked a night on Airbnb which was nearby and cheap, maybe too cheap.

I retrieved the keys to the safe from the front steps, and as I walked through the threshold of a small guesthouse, it was as if someone had turned off the sun. It was thousands of miles from Laguna Beach. Up a squeaky staircase, I found the reason for the high rate. My room was tucked away at the back, facing a narrow alley. The decor was positively Dickensian. The walls were dark blue, and the carpet and politely polished furniture had seen better days. In the corner was a vintage Royal typewriter from the 1930s on a round marble table. I looked at him suspiciously; would that help me or make fun of me? I felt underdressed and chilled in my T-shirt and flip flops.

Three hours later, I slammed my laptop shut and fought the urge to escape the sun. How about a walk on the main beach? No, I had to work. The more I tried, the less I got out. The idea of ​​leaving the house to help my handwriting flow was starting to seem ridiculous to me.

On a whim, I snatched a piece of paper from my notepad and slipped it into the Royal. I smiled when the click of a typewriter key took me 40 years back to the days before computers, the Internet and even Wite-Out. At a time when I created in my head what I wanted to say and typed it carefully knowing that errors involved retyping an entire page. These days, I’ve grabbed a fleeting thought and threw it into a Word document, expecting a whole train of thoughts to spontaneously follow.

The typewriter was obviously used, as the keys were responsive and the cart came back with an easy ka-ching. I typed “quick brown fox jumps over lazy dog” 18 times, left the page in the typewriter, and went to bed.

That night, I dreamed of writing on the Royal, hearing the soft click, the snap of a heartwarming metronome. I woke up reasonably refreshed, made some coffee, and checked out my typing page from the Royal. I opened my laptop, determined but nervous — Dec. 20, and I still had nothing to show. I had to leave before 11 a.m.

I was in a number of false starts when my phone rang. Oh no.

“Love! I love him!” my enthusiastic editor. “It’s the best thing you’ve ever written. It’s a great way to start the New Year.

“What?” I asked, confused.
She stopped. “The story you sent an hour ago. »I clicked on my Sent mailbox. There was indeed an email from me to her.

“So you like it?” I took time.

“Perfect. Original, heartwarming, relatable. Good job, Susie. We’ll talk about your contract renewal next week, okay?

“Of course… great! Thank you, I replied. “Good year.”

On my own again, I opened the email and downloaded the story “A New Year with a Royal” and started reading.

Miranda is an active writer, pickleball player, grandmother and retiree who spends her 60s exploring new places and having adventures.

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Form 425 CITIC Capital Acquisitio Filed by: CITIC Capital Acquisition Corp. https://18-98plus.com/form-425-citic-capital-acquisitio-filed-by-citic-capital-acquisition-corp/ Mon, 27 Dec 2021 12:08:12 +0000 https://18-98plus.com/form-425-citic-capital-acquisitio-filed-by-citic-capital-acquisition-corp/ Article 1.01 Entry into an important definitive agreement. As previously reported, on June 21, 2021, CITIC Capital Acquisition Corp., a Cayman Islands Exempt Limited Limited Partnership (?? CCAC ??), entered into a merger agreement and plan (as amended on June 28, 2021 and on November 14, 2021, the “Merger Agreement ??), by and between CCAC, […]]]>
Article 1.01

Entry into an important definitive agreement.

As previously reported, on June 21, 2021, CITIC Capital Acquisition Corp., a Cayman Islands Exempt Limited Limited Partnership (?? CCAC ??), entered into a merger agreement and plan (as amended on June 28, 2021 and on November 14, 2021, the “Merger Agreement ??), by and between CCAC, CITIC Capital Merger Sub Inc., a Delaware corporation and a direct wholly owned subsidiary of CCAC (?? Merger Sub ??) , and Quanergy Systems, Inc., a Delaware corporation (?? Quanergy ??).

On December 26, 2021, CCAC, Merger Sub and Quanergy entered into the Third Amendment to the Merger Agreement and Plan (the “Merger Agreement Amendment ??), under which Article 10.1 (f ) of the Merger Agreement has been amended and replaced in its entirety by the following:

?? (f) by the Company or the Purchaser (by written notification to the other party), if the Effective Time has not occurred before 11:59 p.m. New York time on February 13, 2022 (the ?? Agreement End Date ??); provided, further, that, with the understanding that the right to terminate this Agreement in accordance with this Section 10.1 (f) will not be available to any party who seriously violates this Agreement.

All other terms of the merger agreement, which was previously filed by the CCAC as Exhibits 2.1 of the CCAC’s current reports on Form 8-K on June 22, 2021, June 28, 2021, and November 15, 2021, respectively, remain unchanged.

The foregoing summary description of the Merger Agreement Addendum is submitted and qualified in its entirety by reference to the Merger Agreement Addendum, a copy of which is attached hereto as Schedule 2.1 and of which the terms are incorporated herein by reference.

Additional information and where to find it

In connection with the proposed transaction (the ?? Business Combination ??), CCAC has filed with the United States Securities and Exchange Commission (the ?? SEC ??) a registration statement on form S-4 (as amended, the ?? Declaration of Registration ??) (File
333-257962), which includes the CCAC Proxy Circular / Preliminary Prospectus. CCAC shareholders and other interested persons are urged to read the registration statement and the proxy statement / preliminary prospectus that form part of the registration statement, as well as any changes previously filed and to be filed, and the statement. registration and the proxy circular / final prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference therein filed in connection with the business combination when they become available, as these documents will contain important information about the parties to the merger agreement. Once the registration statement is declared effective by the SEC, the proxy circular / final prospectus and other relevant documents will be mailed to CCAC shareholders on the registration date set for voting on the proposed business combination and will contain important information about the proposed business combination. business combination and related matters. CCAC shareholders and other interested persons are urged to read, when available, these documents (including any amendments or supplements thereto) and any other material relevant to the solicitation of CCAC for the proxy. The shareholders’ meeting to be held to approve, among other things, the proposed business combination, as they will contain important information about CCAC, Quanergy and the proposed business combination. Login with the toll-free transaction on the SEC website at www.sec.gov or by directing a request to: CITIC Capital Acquisition Corp., 28 / F CITIC Tower, 1 Tim Mei Avenue, Central, Hong Kong , Attention: Fanglu Wang, phone: +852 3710 6888.

Participants in the call for tenders

CCAC, Quanergy and their respective directors and officers may be considered participants in the solicitation of proxies from the shareholders of CCAC in connection with the proposed business combination. CCAC shareholders and other interested persons may obtain, free of charge, more detailed information regarding the directors and officers of CCAC, including their ownership of CCAC securities in the registration statement. Information about who may, under SEC rules, be considered participants in the solicitation of proxies from CCAC shareholders in connection with the proposed business combination is set out in the registration statement, which includes the CCAC proxy statement / preliminary prospectus. . Additional information regarding the interests of participants in the proxy solicitation in connection with the proposed business combination is included in the registration statement, which includes the proxy circular / prospectus that CCAC has filed with the DRY. You can get free copies of these documents as described in the previous paragraph.


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X-ray scan confirms forged date of Lincoln’s forgiveness of American Civil War soldier https://18-98plus.com/x-ray-scan-confirms-forged-date-of-lincolns-forgiveness-of-american-civil-war-soldier/ Sat, 25 Dec 2021 18:55:29 +0000 https://18-98plus.com/x-ray-scan-confirms-forged-date-of-lincolns-forgiveness-of-american-civil-war-soldier/ Enlarge / Abraham Lincoln’s forgiveness for Patrick Murphy, a Civil War soldier in the Union Army who was court martialed for desertion. National archives There is seldom time to write about all the interesting science stories that come our way. So this year we are releasing a special series of Twelve Days of Christmas publications […]]]>
Enlarge / Abraham Lincoln’s forgiveness for Patrick Murphy, a Civil War soldier in the Union Army who was court martialed for desertion.

National archives

There is seldom time to write about all the interesting science stories that come our way. So this year we are releasing a special series of Twelve Days of Christmas publications again this year, highlighting a story that has fallen through the cracks every day from December 25 to January 5. Today: Results of forensic analysis of letter from Abraham Lincoln pardoning American Civil War soldier confirms the date April 14, 1865 has been tampered with and cannot be removed without damaging the document.

A document containing President Abraham Lincoln’s signed pardon for a Civil War soldier has been the source of much controversy since its discovery in 1998, after historians concluded that the date was likely changed to make the document more historically significant. A new analysis by scientists at the National Archives confirmed that the date was indeed tampered with (although the pardon is genuine), according to a november newspaper published in the journal Forensic Science International: Synergy. The authors also concluded that there was no way to restore the document to its original state without causing further damage.

Thomas lowry is a retired psychiatrist turned amateur historian specializing in Civil War military records and the author of numerous Civil War histories. In 1998, he and his wife Beverly were browsing through a mine of rarely studied courts martial at the National Archives, carefully indexing the documents. At the time, there were no security cameras in the room, and the archive staff knew and trusted the Lowry’s. The couple discovered some 570 documents bearing Lincoln’s signature.

Among these was the pardon of a Union Army Civil War soldier named Patrick Murphy, a soldier who had been court martialed for desertion and sentenced to death. Forgiveness is written perpendicularly in the left margin of a letter dated September 1, 1863, asking for a forgiveness for Murphy. Lincoln’s statement reads: “This man is pardoned and hereby ordered to be removed from office. It was signed “A. Lincoln”.

This is the date that made the document meaningful: April 14, 1865, meaning forgiveness was likely one of President Lincoln’s last official acts, as he was assassinated later that same day at Ford’s Theater. in Washington, DC. Forgiveness has been widely interpreted as evidence of historical tale on the compassionate nature of the president: that is, his last act was an act of mercy. The discovery made headlines and brought Lowry considerable fame.

The Inside the Vaults video from January 2011 details the modification of an original Lincoln document by independent researcher Thomas Lowry.

After its discovery, the Forgiveness Murphy was exhibited in the Rotunda of the Charters of Liberty in the National Archives building. But an archivist named Trevor Plante became suspicious of the document, noting that the ink on the “5” in “1865” was noticeably darker. It also looked like another number was written underneath. Next, Plante consulted a seminal collection of Lincoln’s writings from the 1950s. Forgiveness was there, but it was dated April 14, 1864, a year before Lincoln was assassinated by John Wilkes Booth. Obviously, the document had been modified between the 1950s and 1998 to make forgiveness more historically significant.

Investigators naturally turned to the man who made the discovery for more information. They started to match with Lowry in 2010. At first Lowry seemed cooperative, but when he learned of the nature of the investigation, he stopped contacting the Inspector General’s office, raising suspicion. The investigators therefore knocked on the historian’s door one morning in January 2011 for an interview.

Shortly after, the National Archives issued a statement that Lowry had confessed to changing the date of the pardon. Lowry confessed to bringing a fountain pen into the research room, along with some fade-resistant pigment ink, and changed the “4” from “1865” to “5”. Lowry could not be charged with any felony because the statute of limitations for tampering with government property had expired, but he was banned from the National Archives for life.

Close-up on the modified date and
Enlarge / Close-up of the modified date and the “A. Lincoln” signature.

National archives

But there’s a twist: Lowry quickly recanted, saying he signed the confession under duress from National Archives investigators. He said investigators assured him it would never be made public and that he would not suffer any consequences. “I consider these recordings to be sacred” he told the Washington Post at the time. “It is quite unusual for me. I am a man of honor.” His wife suggested that a more likely culprit was a former Archives staff member. (The agency denied this allegation.)

Along with the issue of Lowry’s innocence or guilt, National Archives curators were keen to take a closer look at the altered document and whether the original date could be restored by removing the fake “5”. Plant told the Washington Post he was not optimistic, because “Lowry deliberately used ink which will last a very long time.” The ink appeared to be iron gall ink, consistent with the time.

The National Archives have a state-of-the-art heritage science laboratory, with expertise in a wide range of analytical techniques that have become popular in cultural forensic circles. In the case of Lincoln’s Grace, the team took a close look at the date and signature in visible and ultraviolet light, as well as with the help of XRF Analysis compare the elemental composition of ink.

An examination of the “1854” under magnification and reflective fiber optic lighting showed that the ink used to write the “5” was indeed different from the overall color compared to the other digits in the date. Additionally, “ink remnants from a scratched number can be seen below and next to the darker ‘5’, as well as on the paper,” the authors wrote.

Examples of three of the different scan spots selected to compare the ink used by Lincoln in the
Enlarge / Examples of three of different scan spots selected to compare the ink used by Lincoln in the “L” of his signature, the questionable “5” and the remnants of the abraded “4” also written by Lincoln.

National archives

Additional analysis under grazing light—A technique that accentuates hills and valleys in the paper texture — revealed abrasions on the paper under and around the “5” that were not seen anywhere else on the document. The team also determined that the paper around the “5” is thinner than anywhere else, and that ink residue from the scraped off “4” was stuck in the abraded paper fibers, clearly visible using transmitted light microscopy.

Next, the team looked at the reverse side of the document, as Gallic iron ink is known to penetrate the reverse side of the paper, allowing the image of the text to be seen on the reverse side of the sheet. They noted that the penetration of the “5” was noticeably more intense than for the other digits, which the authors attribute to “the darker, blacker ink being applied more strongly to the already thinned paper when the ink of the original ‘4’ has been crossed out. “

Finally, the National Archives team used non-invasive methods XRF Analysiss to identify what elements were present in the ink. They found the expected presence of potassium and sulfur (common to ferrogallic inks) in the ink used in the “L” of Lincoln’s signature and the “8” in the date. They also found calcium, probably added to the paper as a filler during its manufacture.

They compared this ink to the ink used to write the “5” and found that the overall signals for iron, potassium, and sulfur were much higher for the latter. This is not because the “5” ink has a thicker application. The iron / sulfur and iron / potassium ratios are also not the same. “There is strong support that the ink was not written by Lincoln but in more recent times with a thicker application, after the original Lincoln ‘4’ was removed,” the authors concluded.

This analysis also confirmed Plante’s pessimism about the prospect of removing the forged “5”, thereby restoring forgiveness to its original state. “Any further intervention or attempt to remove the new ‘5’ could not be done selectively and would only further damage the original materials of the historic document,” the authors wrote.

DOI: Forensic Science International: Synergie, 2021. 10.1016 / j.fsisyn.2021.100210 (About DOIs).


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Wichita Public Library Invites You to ‘Tell Your COVID Story’ https://18-98plus.com/wichita-public-library-invites-you-to-tell-your-covid-story/ Thu, 23 Dec 2021 18:01:00 +0000 https://18-98plus.com/wichita-public-library-invites-you-to-tell-your-covid-story/ WICHITA, Kan. (KWCH) – As the COVID-19 pandemic continues around the world, the Wichita Public Library sees an opportunity to document the effects of the pandemic in Wichita. The library’s special collections section will lead a new project called “Tell Your COVID Story.” “ In October, the library received an American Rescue Plan Act (ARPA) […]]]>

WICHITA, Kan. (KWCH) – As the COVID-19 pandemic continues around the world, the Wichita Public Library sees an opportunity to document the effects of the pandemic in Wichita. The library’s special collections section will lead a new project called “Tell Your COVID Story.” “

In October, the library received an American Rescue Plan Act (ARPA) grant from the Institute of Museum and Library Services (IMLS) for this project. Staff will solicit and collect submissions relating to the lives and experiences of community members during the pandemic, including written memories, photographs, videos and more. The library will pay particular attention to collecting the experiences of healthcare workers, frontline workers, small business owners, educators and students, minority communities and local politicians.

“The special collection section is a great resource for the community to learn more about the history of Wichita,” said Sarah Kittrell, collection development manager for the library. “This project will help current and future generations understand what Wichita looked like in the 2020s and 2021s as it navigated through a global pandemic, community discussions of social justice, and personal and community responsibility for health and public security. ”

An online submission form is available for residents to submit their stories (wichitalibrary.org/raconter-votre-histoire). Once the stories are compiled, staff will upload content to an online platform that residents can access.

Copyright 2021 KWCH. All rights reserved.


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Charlotte’s planning director behind controversial 2040 plan to leave for Greensboro https://18-98plus.com/charlottes-planning-director-behind-controversial-2040-plan-to-leave-for-greensboro/ Tue, 21 Dec 2021 22:28:36 +0000 https://18-98plus.com/charlottes-planning-director-behind-controversial-2040-plan-to-leave-for-greensboro/ Planning director Taiwo Jaiyeoba leaves for Greensboro. Photo courtesy of the City of Charlotte Charlotte’s planning director Taiwo Jaiyeoba, who has led the largest city-wide planning effort in decades, is moving to become Greensboro’s city manager. The news was first reported by the Charlotte Observer. Axios looked at an email sent to council members written […]]]>

Planning director Taiwo Jaiyeoba leaves for Greensboro. Photo courtesy of the City of Charlotte

Charlotte’s planning director Taiwo Jaiyeoba, who has led the largest city-wide planning effort in decades, is moving to become Greensboro’s city manager.

The news was first reported by the Charlotte Observer. Axios looked at an email sent to council members written by City Manager Marcus Jones confirming the reports.

  • According to the letter, Jaiyeoba will begin her new role in February.
  • Greensboro City Council is expected to vote tonight to nominate Jaiyeoba, Jones said.

Why is this important: Jaiyeoba was the mastermind behind the Global plan 2040, which explains how Charlotte is expected to grow over the next two decades.

  • the very debated The plan, which was narrowly approved in June, covers everything from affordable housing to environmental sustainability.
  • In a city that is growing as fast as Charlotte, this is one of the most important documents our government has recently approved.

What they say : Before Jaiyeoba was hired, plans to rewrite the City Development Ordinance were at a standstill.

  • “Our planning was messy,” Board member Julie Eiselt tells me. “He helped us make the plan, and now we have to execute the plan. “

Now that the 2040 plan is approved, Jaiyeoba staff are working on this long-delayed prescription rewrite. Known as the Unified Development Ordinance, if approved, the document will implement the vision outlined in the plan through local regulations.

  • Shannon Binns, founder and executive director of Sustain Charlotte, fears Jaiyeoba’s departure may be a setback for these efforts.
  • He was ready to challenge the status quo, and that’s what Charlotte needed, ”he says.

And after: Deputy Director of Planning Alyson Craig will become Acting Director of Planning as the city conducts a nationwide search for Jaiyeoba’s replacement, Jones wrote.

Jaiyeoba, also deputy city manager, participated in plans to expand the light rail and other transportation options across the city. Jones said the city would search to fill the deputy general manager position.

  • Sarah Hazel, Head of City Sustainability and Resilience, will in the meantime work on the city’s mobility efforts.

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Charlotte does not have enough housing for the wave of Afghans


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What Manchin wanted, rejected and got in Biden’s $ 2,000 bill https://18-98plus.com/what-manchin-wanted-rejected-and-got-in-bidens-2000-bill/ Sat, 18 Dec 2021 05:54:15 +0000 https://18-98plus.com/what-manchin-wanted-rejected-and-got-in-bidens-2000-bill/ WASHINGTON (AP) – In a private meeting in July, Senator Joe Manchin and Majority Leader Chuck Schumer sat down to … WASHINGTON (AP) – In a private meeting in July, Senator Joe Manchin and Majority Leader Chuck Schumer sat down to negotiate what exactly it would take for Democrats to unblock Manchin’s vote to kickstart […]]]>

WASHINGTON (AP) – In a private meeting in July, Senator Joe Manchin and Majority Leader Chuck Schumer sat down to …

WASHINGTON (AP) – In a private meeting in July, Senator Joe Manchin and Majority Leader Chuck Schumer sat down to negotiate what exactly it would take for Democrats to unblock Manchin’s vote to kickstart the process of review of President Joe Biden’s massive social and environmental bill. .

What emerged was a one-page, unformatted document where the West Virginia Democrat set out his views. Both signed it, with reservations.

Almost five months later, much of what Manchin wanted has been delivered. But fellow Democrats appear a long way from securing the Conservative senator’s support for their broad national agenda. After being passed in the House, the bill is now stuck in the Senate.

Here’s a look at what Manchin wanted back then and where the legislation stands today.

HIGH-END DOLLARS

Manchin wrote in the document that he wanted a dollar. $ 5,000 billion in revenue – far less than the $ 3.5 trillion offered by Biden.

Biden halved the amount to $ 1.75 trillion when it became clear Manchin could take it. The bill now stands at around $ 2 trillion.

STRATEGIC BREAK

Manchin wanted to start the debate on the legislation no earlier than October 1.

In a subsequent opinion piece, he suggested a “strategic break”.

This date has passed.

TAXES

Manchin insisted on the corporate tax rate, which Biden proposed raising to 28%, not more than 25%. In fact, it ultimately didn’t come up at all, thanks to opposition from another recalcitrant Democrat, Arizona Senator Kyrsten Sinema.

Manchin also proposed a minimum corporate rate of 15%, as is now included in the bill.

He wanted the excess income to be used to pay down debt, but that idea was never adopted by Democrats.

CLIMATE CHANGE

The state senator from Coal insisted on a “fuel neutral” energy policy – essentially a policy that does not favor wind, solar and other renewable energy sources over fossil fuels, such as coal and natural gas.

Manchin insisted on plans for a clean energy standard managed by the energy and natural resources committee, which he chairs.

After Manchin’s opposition, the White House scrapped plans for a national clean energy standard that conservationists saw as the most important tool to curb climate change.

The new incentives for renewable energy sources did not come with setbacks on coal, oil or natural gas.

Just this week, Manchin, as chairman of the panel on energy, withdrew a Democratic proposal to permanently ban offshore drilling in the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. Environmentalists strongly opposed his move, and several Democrats have said they will fight to reinstate the drilling ban, which gained new momentum following a catastrophic oil spill off the California coast this fall.

Despite Manchin’s criticism, Democrats remain on track to impose a levy on excessive methane emissions from oil and gas wells.

SOCIAL POLICY

Much of Manchin’s public opposition to the size and reach of the package focuses on his investment in historic social programs – child tax credits, a new federal paid family leave program, and child care children at a lower cost.

His reasoning? Well, Manchin reiterated one sentence during these negotiations: “I don’t think we should turn our society into a society of rights. ”

The senator was adamant about “no additional documents,” as he wrote in his memo. He wants many of the “means tested” social service programs to apply only to people with lower income cutoffs.

As a result, the new paid family and medical leave program that Democrats overwhelmingly want could be completely wiped out, dashing their hopes of removing the United States from the list of remaining countries without any form of paid national leave.

The most recent debate revolves around the extension of the child tax credit, passed earlier this year as part of pandemic relief legislation. The program, a cornerstone of Democratic efforts to reduce child poverty, sent up to $ 300 per child directly to families’ bank accounts each month. The expansion, studies show, is expected to reduce child poverty by 40%, of which 9 in 10 American children will benefit.

Without action from Congress, the program will expire and this month’s checks will be the last.

Manchin now says he wants the child tax credit program to be extended for the entire 10-year budget window, rather than just one year – a failure since the price would consume most of the money. Biden’s bill, crowding out other key initiatives on healthcare, childcare, education and more.

“We are not going to move all the programs over 10 years. That won’t happen, ”Congressional Progressive Caucus leader Pramila Jayapal, D-Wash., Representative Pramila Jayapal, D-Wash., Told The Associated Press on Friday.

Jayapal said Manchin agreed to a framework for the bill in October, which spelled out the plan’s priorities and costs but did not limit the duration of any of them. Manchin, she predicted, “will keep his pledge.”

___

Associated Press editors Alan Fram and Matthew Daly contributed.

Copyright © 2021 The Associated Press. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, written or redistributed.


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